Only 500 people now live in the Circassian town of Marj Al-Sultan in East Ghouta, which had a population of 3,500 residents before 2011.
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Returns to the city of Darayya in Damascus’ West Ghouta area remain selective and partial, amid a lack of basic public services. However, it seems that even these limited returns have become a major factor for funding service rehabilitation in the city, as authorities depend on aid and donations from returning residents for funding in return for allowing returnees to repair their private properties.