Analysis & Features

Ifraz, or subdivision, of real estate in Syria means dividing a real estate property into smaller parcels. The Directorate of Cadastral Affairs carries out the technical process following plans that the relevant local administrative unit has approved. 
Douma is a city in East Ghouta and serves as the administrative centre of the Rural Damascus governorate and the Douma district, which contains seven districts. The 2010 census estimated that 300,000 people live in the 3,000-hectare city. 
Under Article 768 of the Syrian Civil Code, property owners are free to dispose of their properties and use and exploit them as they wish, within the limits of the law. However, some laws limit that freedom, as in the so-called "restraint on disposal" measure.
Under Syria’s Personal Status Law No. 59 of 1953, which is based on Islamic Sharia principles, the Druze’s inheritance rules are the same as those for other Islamic sects. That being said, the rules for drawing up bequests differ in the Druze sect. 
Syria’s Public Assets Collection Law allows the General Commission for Taxes and Fees, part of the Ministry of Finance, to transfer private real estate to state ownership if the original owners fail to pay the necessary taxes and fees. The law was promulgated by Legislative Decree No. 341 of 1956 and its amendments.
An expropriation plan is a document issued by an official authority that has made an expropriation decision. The plan contains the properties and portions of properties that will be expropriated per Article 7 of Expropriation Law No. 20 of 1983. 
Building codes determine the conditions builders must meet to construct, repair, and demolish buildings and facilities within an administrative unit’s boundaries.
In some cases, several Syrian laws have allowed people to convert the right of usufruct and disposal of Amiri lands into the right to own such properties, while in other cases, laws have permitted the state to recover Amiri lands. These instances raise questions over the origins of state ownership over Amiri lands and the legitimacy of this kind of ownership. 
On August 14, the Prime Ministry issued Decree No. 1312, which stipulates that fees for construction permits be paid in three instalments over a period of two years. Administrative units grant construction permits to land owners in accordance with certain laws and regulations.
Property extortion cases are today one of the most common housing, land and property violations in areas controlled by the majority-Kurdish Autonomous Administration in North and East Syria (AANES) and constitute the most significant share of cases in local courts. 
Syria’s Criminal Court may sentence accused persons and issue judgments to seize their properties in absentia, placing those properties under the control of administrative authorities.  The Criminal Court handles cases with a criminal nature, in which the penalty for convicted persons is over three years. The court must apply the principles of Criminal Procedure Law No. 112 of 1950. 
The Ministry of Local Administration has established a fund to cover all the expenses for the zoning of the Damascus Northern Entrance area. Damascus Cham Holding, a company affiliated with the Damascus governorate, would manage the fund.